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Nitrogen, nitrogen-acid and combined well treatments

«Packer Service, LLC» starts nitrogen treatments operations on market on 2008 and successfully develops this service line with usage different way of nitrogen generating (cryogenic and membrane types)

  • Mobile membrane nitrogen unit, equipped with 50 separating membrane (made by «PCI», USA) with max gaseous nitrogen rate up to 20 nm3/min and max working pressure 34 MPa.
  • Mobile cryogenic nitrogen unit, equipped with cryogenic gasificator with max gaseous nitrogen rate 85 m3/min and max working pressure 70 MPa.

Gaslift way of well completion

«Packer Service, LLC» has wide range of technologies uses nitrogen treatment both with Coiled Tubing unit and without (jobs with workover crew or jobs with tubing line). Below are descriptions of technologies offered by our company to clients.

Gaslift way of well completion

This technology used in case back pressure to formation have to be reduced, formed by killing fluid or drilling mud presented in a well after drilling of workover operations. Gazlift scheme

Those jobs are done for stimulation of kick-off in oil and gas wells.

Equipment and products

  • Coiled tubing unit;
  • Inert gas source;
  • Nitrogen compressor;
  • Drainage tank (in case collector line can’t be used by some reasons);
  • Surfactant.

Tubing size is defined by hydraulic resistance between tubing and coiled tubing in accordance to enough pumping rate for removing killing fluid.

During this operation additional pressure applied to formation due to hydraulic resistance has to be observed, because this can lead to losses of fluid to formation.

Technology description

Coiled tubing is run to tubing and gas starts to feed. Due to this hydrostatic pressure is reduced and fluids pumped out from the well, while gas (oil) starts enter to well. Well fluids are pumped out in annulus between tubing and coiled tubing.

Gas pumping is starts from the very beginning or after 100-200 m RIH and not stopped during whole stimulation kick-off period. Gas is pumped with increasing pump rate up to 14-20 m3/min. Gas pumping pressure is continuously controlled and increasing with depth.

First fluid in tubing starts to aerate. If described operation is done after jobs with preliminary killing of the well, the fluid is usually brine or in worse case mud. Due to hydrostatic pressure reduction formation fluid (gas) in combination with pumped gas increase removing of presented fluid from a well. For increasing foam and efficiency surfactant is used.

After reaching lower perforations gaslift process is ensure. This process have to be done up to reaching formation fluid on surface. Then coiled tubing starts to POOH with not stopping pumping. Fluid contends and debit is observed. After reaching 100-200 m depth and in case well kicking gas pumping can be stopped.

Well completion technology after Fracturing

Main requirements to well completion after fracturing are:

  • performance of wellbore clean out and stimulation kick-off jobs in short period for well non production time reduction;
  • quick removing of technological fluids and keeping of max fracturing permeability;
  • max removing of unsecured proppant;
  • performance of jobs with underbalance pressure without fluids losses to reduce formation damage.

The same jobs are done after abrasive jet perforation.

Equipment and products

  • Coiled tubing unit;
  • Pump init;
  • Drainage tank
  • Nitrogen source;
  • Wash fluid.

Technology description

Wellbore clean out and nitrogen gaslift operation is done with one RIH and POOH operation and consists of three stages.

Wellbore clean out after Fracturing

Operation is performed for sump clean out to possible lower depth below perforations. Due to usage of two phase and foam fluids clean out to bottom depth is performed without lost circulation, where formation pressure is 0.3 to1.0 from hydrostatic pressure. While good clean out from solid particles even on low pumping rate is reached, even on casing sizes 146, 168, 178 and 194 mm and in highly deviated and horizontal wells.

Gaslift through coiled tubing

Operation performed up to getting stable formation fluid and solids content reduction. Underbalance pressure can reach from 70 to 140 atm, which allows clean near wellbore formation from unsecured particles. This operation eliminates requirements for running submersible pump for removing presented fluid.

Period of gaslift operation can be 12 hours and more. Nitrogen or gas from pipeline can be used.

Final wellbore clean out

Clean out is performed up to bottom depth before running submersible pump for final solids clean out from near wellbore zone and annulus.

Average job time with Coiled Tubing is from 2 to 5 days, including long nitrogen gaslift (during 12-16 hours) and rig down.

Acid treatment of near wellbore formation

Acid treatment is used for influence on carbonate formations increasing its permeability. Acid treatment of near wellbore formation

Equipment and products

  • Coiled tubing unit;
  • Unit for acid treatment with specialized pump;
  • Acid tank;
  • Acid.

Acid heating is proposed in some acid treatment technologies.

Technology description

Coiled tubing is run with continuous circulation to perforation zones. Then calculated acid volume is pumped into the well with following it displacement. Annulus should be closed while acid pumping and displacement. This allows acid enter to formation.

Processes of pumping and displacement are done on high rate. While acid treatment pressure in perforation zone should not exceed frac pressure. (In some cases with low permeability formations process of pumping can be done with fracturing of formation). After keeping well under pressure in designed period of time of acid reaction with formation annulus is opened, coiled tubing is raised and stimulation of kick-off begins.

If treated formation is rich of carbonate, the fracturing fluid could be strong hydrochloric acid. In this case treating period for reaction is elongated.

Coiled tubing usage practice shows that chemicals products consumption is reduced to 25-30% in comparison with traditional methods, beside that treatment period reduced.

Land pipeline maintenance

Application

This technology is used for land formation pressure maintenance pipelines. In case long period shut off or breakdown of pumping station there is possibility to freeze pipeline supplying water to wells. In such cases it is required to dig a trench and heat pipeline from outside. This is time-consuming, labor-consuming and expensive operation.

There are cases then Coiled Tubing units were used for unfreezing land pipelines. In this case unit is fitted with coiled tubing diverter allowing to run it in horizontal position, and pipeline in its turn fits with nipple and valve. Nipples are welded with tangent lines to pipeline with 2-3 km intervals, depending on working coiled tubing length. In emergency case of freezing pipeline, the nipple can be welded just before job execution.

Equipment and products

  • Coiled tubing unit (coiled tubing is fitted with check valve and wash insert);
  • Pump unit;
  • Fluid tanks;
  • Heating unit;
  • Treatment fluid (brine or technical water).

Technology description

In case freezing of pipeline main in and out valves are closed, and then coiled tubing is injected in each section of pipeline with pumping hot brine. Technology of removing ice plugs in pipeline is equal to technology of removing hydrate or paraffin plugs in wells. After unfreezing, section is filled with nonfreezing fluid, and unit is moving to next nipple with continues unfreezing all remains sections of pipeline.